pipers reaction to polly and larry is my reaction to polly and larry
Tuskegee syphilis study recruitment letter.
By Gwen Sharp, PhD
The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment is one of the most famous examples of unethical research. The study, funded by the federal government from 1932-1972, looked at the effects of untreated syphilis. In order to do this, a number of Black men in Alabama who had syphilis were misinformed about their illness. They were told they had “bad blood” (which was sometimes a euphemism for syphilis, though not always) and that the government was offering special free treatments for the condition. Above is an example of a letter sent out to the men to recruit them for more examinations.
The “special free treatment” was, in fact, nothing of the sort. The researchers conducted various examinations, including spinal taps, not to treat syphilis but just to see what its effects were. In fact, by the 1950s it was well established that a shot of penicillin would fully cure early-stage syphilis. Not only were the men not offered this life-saving treatment, the researchers conspired to be sure they didn’t find out about it, getting local doctors to agree that if any of the study subjects came in they wouldn’t tell them they had syphilis or that a cure was available.
The abusive nature of this study is obvious (letting men die slow deaths that could have been easily prevented, just for the sake of scientific curiosity) and shows the ways that racism can influence researchers’ evaluations of what is acceptable risk and whose lives matter. The Tuskegee experiment was a major cause for the emergence of human subjects protection requirements and oversight of federally-funded research once the study was exposed in the early 1970s. Some scholars argue that knowledge of the Tuskegee study increased African Americans’ distrust of the medical community, a suspicion that lingers to this day.
In 1997 President Clinton officially apologized for the experiment.
Gwen Sharp is an associate professor of sociology at Nevada State College. You can follow her on Twitter at @gwensharpnv.
Joe Russo: We always said that the whole movie lives or dies on that last scene between him and Bucky. You know, this third act is a fait accompli in a way. It’s a superhero movie.
Steve McFeely: I suspect he will win.
Joe Russo: The expectation is that he will win. But the real story is will he win Bucky, will he save his friend, will his friend kill him, will he have to kill his friend? The tragedy of that moment was the most important thing to us as directors in the third act. That’s the real climax of the act.
Steve McFeely: Yeah, from jump street we always worked towards getting to: “I will sacrifice myself in order to reach my friend.” And so “end of the line” has been the line since the very beginning. And Sebastian nails it, it cracks him.
Chris Markus: Again, it’s about Steve trying to save his past.
Joe Russo: It’s the last thing he has left.
- Captain America: The Winter Soldier Blu-ray Audio Commentary
I appreciate that his brother has successfully learned how to block the left boob grab.